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  Ustad Abdul Ghafur Breshna
Ustad Abdul Ghafur BreshnaAfghanland.com - Abdul Ghafur Breshna was one of the most talented artists of Afghanistan. His versatile work as painter, composer, musician, poet and a director affected the development and the renewal of the Afghan art and culture in 20. Century.

Breshna was born on 10 April 1907 in Kabul. In 1921 he was sent by king Amanullah and other teenage students to Germany for higher education. There he studied painting and lithography at the academy of arts in Munich, Leipzig and Berlin, among others. In Germany Breshna became acquainted with his future wife –Marguerhee, whom he married 1928. In 1931 Breshna returned with his wife and the first son to Kabul. 

Breshna started a teacher and later director of the college of arts and crafts into Kabul (1930-1939) He introduced a new understanding and drawing techniques. Amongst his art students were the great Professor Khair Mohammed, Professor Ghausuddin, Hafizullah and Abdurrab. 

In his pictures and Portraits, he brought to life road scenes, landscapes scenes of the country life and the soul of the people. 

His portraits were mostly of poets, philosophers and rulers. These pictures served a better understanding of the national inherence in the historical books of the country. 

His work was on display through out of Afghanistan from (1940-1972) Furthermore exhibitions in Teheran (1953, 1966), Delhi (1954, 1974), Cairo (1956), New York (1957), Moscow (1965,1973), Peking (1967), Sofia (1967), Cannes (1971) and Dushambe (1972). 

From 1938-1943 Breshna served as general manager of the national press and publishing house responsible for the establishment and organization of the newspapers, magazines and yearbooks of the country where he introduced color technology and the contents the magazines were very desired in Afghanistan and in neighboring Iran. 

During World War II, German teachers abandoned the country. Breshna who was fluent in the German language and with the help of his wife illustrated and translated several books for the Afghan/German schools in Afghanistan. In 1968 for his services to German Language, he received the distinguished honor of "large Distinguished Service Cross with star of the Federal Republic of Germany". Presented by Federal President Heinrich Luebke.

As director of music and a later president of radio Afghanistan (1943-1953) he promoted the traditional music of his homeland. He was anxious to help the women in Afghanistan. Under his rule radio Kabul radiated the voice of a woman (Merman Parwin) for the first time. 

Breshna was an outstanding musician and composer of numerous songs. His musical works are still played by many Afghan, Indian and Iranian musicians. His musical students were Gul Ahmad Shifta and Zaland. According to Afghanland.com, In 1973 by the order of President Daud, he composed the national anthem for the Republic of Afghanistan.

Between 1940 and 1953 he wrote over 20 plays for the radio and the theatre, with which he led direction and also sketched and painted the sceneries. His most well known and most popular piece of "Lala Malang" (uncle Malang) was produced 1947. 

Breshna drew caricatures, which appeared in the journals, newspapers and yearbooks, to make attentive on political and social states in Afghanistan. He is the mental father and comical doings of "Rajab Khan", the Afghan equivalent of the Turkish Mullah Nasruddin

Abdul Ghafur Breshna remained active up to the end of life as advisors to information Ministry. He died on 4 January 1974 in his birth city of Kabul. 

Although through the Soviet invasion and the following civil war many works Breshna were lost and/or were destroyed, but his family succeeded in saving over one hundred oil pictures and water colors as well as a number of sketches. 
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