of Afghanistan Dar Maseer-e-Tareekh
In the Course of History, Volumes 1 and
Mir Gholam Mohammad Ghobar’s Books:
first volume of Afghanistan Dar
Maseer-e-Tareekh covers history of
Afghanistan from ancient times until the
second quarter of the 20th
Century (the end of Shah Amanulah’s
The government, prior to leaving
the publishing house, immediately banned
this book, printed in 1967 in Kabul.
second volume of Afghanistan Dar
Maseer-e-Tareekh (the last volume)
covers the critical and eventful period
during the government of Nadir Shah and
his family until the fall of Prime
Minister Shah Mahmood (Nadir Shah’s
brother) from power.
This second volume is, in fact,
the remaining few chapters of the first
Due to censorship, it could not
be published then. It is for this reason
that the author has not written a
preface for the second volume.
Later on, he did not have the
opportunity to prepare the required
appendages for the second volume.
This second volume has now been
printed and published uncensored.
was born in Kabul City in 1898.
Ghobar’s youth coincided with a
period in which the roots of social
change were slowly developing.
In Kabul, the capital of
Afghanistan, newspapers and magazines
were being published.
Private libraries and both open
and covert intellectual circles were
These occurrences resulted in a
political revolution and social
evolution in the country, leading to
Afghanistan’s victory in the Third
Afghan British War. This victory helped
to provide a positive environment for
the social activities and movements
among the country’s younger
However, this period did not last
more than ten years.
activities During the Amania (King
–1920 - Founder and chief editor
of “Setaara-e Afghan” (Afghan
Star). This weekly magazine
contained two pages, subjects were
analytical and reformative,
originally printed and published in
Jabulsaraaj Stone Printing House and
later in Charikar (Parwan province).
– 1921 - Official in the Ministry
of Public Safety
- Member of Herat (region in the
west) Regulation Committee
Member of Amania Cooperative and
Trade Mission in Moscow Convention
- Secretary in Afghan Embassy in
- Official of customs office in
regions of Kataghan and Badakhshan
- Elected Representative (by
citizens of Kabul) at Loy Jerga
(National Assembly) in Paghman.
the Government of Nadir Shah and His
- First Secretary in the Afghan
Embassy in Berlin. Ghobar resigned
from this position and returned to
Afghanistan amongst disagreements
with Nadir Shah.
- Member of Kabul Literary Society
- Political prisoner
- Political exile in regions of
Farah, & Kandahar
- Member of Historical Society in
- Elected Representative of Kabul
Citizens in the Seventh National
- Founder and leader of Watan
(Country) Party and Founder and
Chief Editor of Watan newspaper
(Party’s political organ).
goals and objectives of the Watan
Party were according to Ghobar
of sovereignty and integrity of
of democracy and justice in all
aspects of political and social life
civil and human rights
education and public health
and devotion for peace and
wholesomeness in the world
newspaper was printed in four pages, in
Its style was analytical.
On 1951 the government banned the
Watan newspaper and in 1952 also banned
the Watan party.
In 1956, the government
officially announced that Watan party
must be dissolved as of that date.
- Political prisoner Because of
Ghobar’s leadership in a
demonstration for free parliamentary
– 1978 - For the next 22 years,
Ghobar, was put under continuous
surveillance by the government, and
thus was forced to continue his
political activities from his house.
During this period, Ghobar wrote
Afghanistan Dar Maseer-e-Tareekh
(Afghanistan in the Course of
In 1967, the Book Publishing
House in Kabul signed an official
written contract with Mir Gholam
Mohammed Ghobar to print his book in
Three hundred copies were
promised to the author.
At this time, this particular
Book Publishing House belonged to
the Ministry of Information under
Minister Abdul Raouf
The current prime minister
was Mohammed Hashem Maiwandwal.
However, as soon as the last page of
the book was printed, the book was
immediately banned by the ruling
dynasty without any official
Later, the new prime minister
(Noor Ahmad Etemadi), officially
announced in a parliamentary
meeting, without any legal or court
process, the banning of the first
volume of Afghanistan Dar
Maseer-e-Tareekh. At this time,
Mohammed Anas, the new Minister of
Information, officially summoned
Ghobar to the Ministry of
Information, and requested the
40 copies of the book that
Ghobar had obtained during the
printing process, based on the
signed contract. The minister
questioned Ghobar with a threatening
tone, “You have spent much of your
life in prison and in exile and the
locks and chains of prisons are
weary of you, but still you write
this kind of book?”
Ghobar answered, “You have
not seen my house.
Only a wall separates my home
from the Kabul City Prison.
The room I have is smaller
than the one given to me when I was
in prison, so the threat of prison
has no effect on me.
I consider it my duty to
write the true history of the people
Legally, the history book I
have written must be released.
The government can then use
its power to hire and assign writers
who serve the government, writers
who have already distorted the facts
and history of the past, to respond
to my book in writing.”
the government of the time used any and
all means to prevent the publication of
Ghobar’s written works including
newspaper, articles, or books, and
banned Afghanistan Dar Maseer-e-Tareekh
upon its release. Ghobar failed to
recapture his seat in the parliament for
a second time, which according to Ghobar
was a staged election.
a few months before the fall of the Daud
Khan government by the coup that was run
by the Soviet’s puppet regime, Mir
Gholam Mohammad Ghobar had gone to West
Berlin for the treatment of a gastric
ulcer lost his battle with the illness
and passed on February 5th,
was put to rest in the burial place of
his ancestors in Shohada-e-Saleheen in
Kabul, Afghanistan. God bless his soul.
had written in his will that several
hundreds rare books, his private
library, to be donated to one of
Afghanistan’s public libraries.
Also written in his last will,
“I wish for my children the blessing
of faith and belief in one God;
kindness, success in serving the poor
and needy and humanity, which will lead
to serenity of soul, a clear conscience,
and positive outlook to life and
death.” Following his death, his wish
was carried out and the books were
donated to Kabul Public Library.
behind are his wife, Saleha Ghobar, and
seven children (Maria Ghobar, Rona
Ghobar, Donia Ghobar, Asad Hasan Ghobar,
Ashraf Shuhab Ghobar, Ibrahim Adham
Ghobar, and Hashmat Khalil Ghobar).
2nd volume of Afghanistan dar
maser e tareekh was completed in 1973,
and in his written will, assigned the
job of safekeeping and publishing this
book (at an appropriate time) to his
son, Hashmat Khalil Ghobar. In June of
1999, Hashmat Khalil Ghobar printed the
second volume of “Afghanistan Dar
Maseer-e-Tareekh” (Afghanistan in the
Course of History) at American Speedy
Print House, VA, USA, (in 285 pages),
5000 copies were printed
Afghanistan Dar Maseer-e-Tareekh
(Afghanistan In the Course of History),
Volume One 1967:
Kabul General Printing House, first
print 3000 copies
Second Print outside of Afghanistan
(more than 55,000 copies).
Afghanistan Dar Maseer-e-Tareekh
(Afghanistan in the Course of History),
Volume Two 1973:
Afghanistan Wa Negahe Ba Tareekh-e Aan
(Afghanistan and A Look at its History),
Kabul Printing House, published in Kabul
Journal (2nd -12th
This book covers the subject of
Afghanistan’s geographical history.
Afghanistan Dar Hindoostan (Afghanistan
in India), 1932:
This book projects the history of
Afghanistan’s political influence in
Tareekhcha-e Mokhtasar-e Afghanistan (A
Brief History of Afghanistan), 1932:
Printed in the first volume of Kabul
Saalnaama (yearly) Kabul Printing House.
book reviews the history of Afghanistan
from the beginning of Avesta period
until 20th century, and
includes a list of Afghanistan’s
initial names, regions and borders in
the form of an appendix.
Tareekh-e Ahmad Shah Baba (History of
Ahmad Shah Baba), 1943:
Ghobar wrote this book while he was in
exile in Kandahaar (a region in south of
The book was published (with some
difficulty) after he returned to Kabul.
It includes historical events in
Afghanistan during the 18th
100 pages, Kabul Printing House.
This book is a study and research re “Khorasan”,
which was the name of the country (now
Afghanistan) for more than 1500 years.
The study is based on valid
sources of historical/geographical
Resaala-e Omara-e Mahalee Afghanistan
(Pamphlet on Local Governments in
Kabul Printing House, published in
“Ariana” journal, 2nd
year, volumes 3-7.
Tareekh-e-Islam and Nofooz-e Arab in
Afghanistan (History of Islam and Arab
Influence in Afghanistan), 1947:
Kabul Printing House is included in 3rd
volume of Afghanistan History.
Quroon-e-Ula (Early Centuries), 1947:
Kabul Printing House.
Ghobar wrote this book in cooperation
with Dost Mohammed Khan, a history
teacher, as part of history curriculum
for 10th grade of public
Afghanistan Ba Yak Nazar (Afghanistan At
One Glance), 1947:
284 pages, Kabul Printing House.
The government of the time (who belonged
to Mohamadzayee dynasty), did not like
the page with information about
Mohamadzayee Ruling Period, and censored
and replaced that part.
Adabyat-e Dowra-e Mohammed Zayee
(Literature in Mohammed Zayee Period),
printing house, published in the fifth
chapter of History of Literature in
A series of articles (historical,
social, and political), 1943-1949:
articles were published in Kabul
periodicals and newspapers, (among them
in “Ariana” journal, 1943-1949).
Ghobar, through these articles,
projected Afghan scholars, and
introduced some of Afghanistan’s
historical handwritten books, as well as
(Our Economy), Ghobar’s famous
article, was published in the daily
newspaper “Islah” (correction), 51st
vol., October 9th, 1946. This
analytical article expounded the nature
of the economy of the country and a
small group of major merchants and money
holders who in cooperation with the
government conducted trade.
In this article, Ghobar revealed
facts about a system, which greatly
increased the financial gains by this
group and resulted in increased general
poverty among the people of the country,
and destruction of urban and rural
middle class economy and the middle and
small businessmen and merchants. This
article provoked much discussion and
The government, during a session
of the cabinet, interrogated and
threatened Ghobar and punished the chief
editor of Islah newspaper.
Setaara-e Afghan (Afghan Star),
Weekly two-page newspaper, printed in
Jabul Saraaj Print House (stone print)
and later in Charikar Print House.
Ghobar was chief editor and the
goal of the newspaper was to keep the
spirit of fighting for independence from
The time of the newspaper’s
publication and distribution coincided
with the beginning of Afghanistan’s
war for liberty. Ghobar’s articles in
the last issues of this newspaper were
critical of the government too.
Watan (Country), political organ
of Watan Party, 1950-1951:
This weekly newspaper was published in
Ghobar was the founder and chief
editor of Watan, and many of his
political articles at that time were
Watan was banned by the
government of the time and its
publication was stopped.
Tareekh-e Adabyat-e Afghanistan (History
of Afghanistan Literature):
From the beginning of historical era
till 20th century.
(This manuscript has not been printed
Ghobar’s Notes about his life:
(This manuscript has not been printed
The second volume of Afghanistan Dar
Maseer-e-Tareekh (Afghanistan in the
Course of History) will be published in
English in the near future.
The first volume will be
published in English later.
By Foreign Media At the Time of
Saturday, Mir Gholam Mohammed Ghobar,
Afghanistan’s greatest historian,
journalist, and famous political fighter
for freedom of this century left this
world at the age of 80.
Based on one of the scholars,
Ghobar, even at old age, possessed new
ideas and the spirit of the youth.”
when he was young, started to study
social and political subjects.
When he became a member of Kabul
Literary Society, he began to write
articles about history and became an
important member of this society. The
works of the late Ghobar also included a
series of social and historical articles
that have not all been published.
his books that have been published, one
can name Afghanistan Dar
Maseer-e-Tareekh, which is the most
credible historical research and, until
now, has been the source of
documentation and information for many
researchers and writers.
Ghobar always included elements
of criticism in his social writings, and
with his sharp insight, tried to analyze
historical events in his writings.”
not only as a historian, but also as a
fighter for freedom gained fame and love
among people, and he participated in
Afghanistan’s political and social
reforms. In his youth, at the end of
Afghanistan and England’s third war,
in which Afghanistan achieved its
political liberty, Ghobar was an active
representative in the first parliament
of the Afghan Government and tried hard
to support and promote the ‘renewal
and reform’ mentality.”
the upcoming reforms, before the
republican revolution in Afghanistan, he
spent time in prison, and was also
exiled in regions of Farah-Afghanistan
for a time.
Following his return to Kabul,
Ghobar worked as journalist for a while
and published Watan (Country) newspaper,
the political organ of Watan Party.
At the end of his political
activities, he wrote his last book about
Afghanistan’s political history, which
was published in the government’s
printing house, but prior to
distribution was banned.
A few weeks ago, Ghobar went to
West Germany for medical treatment and
died in the hospital.
May God rest his soul.
February 20th, 1978
from Dari language)
Greatest Historian Left This World”
Gholam Mohammed Ghobar, Afghanistan’s
famous historian and fighter for
freedom, at the age of eighty, due to
sickness and physical weakness due to
many years of struggle for freedom, last
Saturday left this world.”
of Mir Gholam Mohammed Ghobar’s works
are not published yet.
History books, Khorasan, Ancient
Afghanistan, and Afghanistan Dar
Maseer-e-Tareekh (Afghanistan in the
Course of History) are among his
Gholam Mohammed Ghobar’s book,
Afghanistan Dar Maseer-e-Tareekh, is one
of the most credible historical
researches, and until now has been the
source of documentation and information
for many writers and researchers.”
Gholam Mohammed Ghobar, not only as a
historian but also as a fighter for
freedom, is famous and loved. At the
time of occupation of Afghanistan by
England, he was a renowned liberal who
fought for freedom, and later he founded
the Watan (Country) Party and the
party’s official organ, Watan
newspaper, which many of today’s well
known writers of Afghanistan cooperated
with, was published under supervision
and editorship of Ghobar, and many of
the newspaper’s political articles
were written by Ghobar himself.”