Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai
born 1947, Gardiz, Afghanistan
died September 27, 1996, Kabul
Dr. Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai was the fourth President of Afghanistan during the
period of the communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
(meaning "Honored of God") was born in August 1947 to a
moderately prosperous family belonging to the Pushtun Ahmadzai
sub-tribe of the Ghilzai. Though his ancestral village was
located between the towns of Said Karam and Gardez, capital of
Pakhtia Province, Najibullah was born in Afghanistan's capital
father, Akhtar Mohammad Khan, who died in 1983, served during
the 1960s as the Afghani trade commissioner and consul in
educated at Habibia High School and Kabul University, where he
graduated with a degree in Medicine in 1975.
He joined the Parcham faction of the communist People's
Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) in 1965.
and was jailed
twice for his political activities and his stance on
abolition of feudal power in the countryside relaxed form of
religion. He was for equal rights for women and various ethnic
minorities and the release of more than 13,000 political
regarded as an intelligent man, he was referred to as Najib-e
Gaw (the Bull) by his opponents due to his physique. He
preferred the name Najib, and dropping the trailing Allah. The PDPA
staged a successful coup in 1978, but the Khalq faction of the
PDPA gained supremacy, and after a brief stint as ambassador
in Tehran, Najibullah was dismissed from government and went
into exile in Europe.
He returned to Kabul after the Soviet invasion in 1979. In
1980, he was appointed the head of KHAD, the secret police.
KhAD is an abbreviation for Khedamat-e Etelea'at-e Dawlati,
the Afghanistan Marxist regime's secret police, also known as
the State Information Agency. Set up in 1980, and controlled
by the KGB, this was a brutal agency specifically created for
the suppression of Afghanistan Marxist regime's internal
Under Najibullah's control, it is claimed that KHAD arrested,
tortured and executed tens of thousands of Afghans. He was
known morst famously as "Najib e Gow" literaly meaning "Najib
the Bull" Najibullah
Karmal as Afghanistan's President in 1986.
In 1986 Najibullah
became general secretary of the PDPA and had a mild success
against the mujahidin revolt. Afghanistan was undermined by
the intrigues of the soviet government led by Gorbachov and
his clique. Finally Gorbachov withdrew Soviet forces from
Afghanistan in 1989.
government survived for another three years. Eventually
divisions within his own ranks, including the defection of
General Abdul Rashid Dostam fatally weakened the government's
resolve. Najibullah had
been working on a compromise settlement to end the civil war
with Ahmad Shah Masood, brokered by
the United Nations. But talks broke down and the government
Mojahidin forces entered Kabul in 1992.
Najibullah tried to flee Kabul, but his departure was blocked
by Abdul Rashid Dostum. Najibullah sought sanctuary in the UN
compound in Kabul.
President Rabbani, refused to let him leave the country, but
made no attempt to arrest him. Najibullah spent the rest of
his days in virtual detention.
On September 27 1996 Taliban militiamen burst into the
compound and dragged Najibullah to the presidential palace,
where he was beaten and shot. His mutilated body, together
with that of his brother, was then hung on street lamp posts
outside the palace.