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  Timeline: Afghanistan in Crisis
Afghanland.com Detailed Timeline 1919 - 2005
  Year Month Events
1919 8 Afghanistan Declares its Independences after 3rd and final Anglo-Afghan war.
1919 11 Lenin Called Amanullah Khan the Leader of Only Independent Islamic State and encouraged him to rally enslaved Muslims around the world for independence.
1921 2 Afghan - Soviet Treaty of Friendship.
1924   Soviets aided Amanulla with War planes to eliminate opposition of king's modernization
1925   First USSR invasion: Russian Annexed Utra Tangi Island on the Amu River
1926   USSR returned the Island back to Afghanistan followed by a treaty of neutrality and non-aggression with Afghanistan.
1927   Amanulla visits Europe and Middle east
1928   Photographs of Queen Soraya reach Afghanistan depicting her in western clothes and without veil.
1929 1 Rebellion against King Amanaulla and his western ways forced him out of Kabul and into Qandahar in his Rolls Royce.
1929 2 Habibulla Kalakani (Bachai Saqaw) an illiterate man proclaimed himself king and surrounded himself with bandits and peasants. He once replaced the rose garden at the royal palace with field of carrots.
1929 3 Ghulam Nabi invaded Afghanistan to help overthrow Bachai Saqaw and reinstate King Amanulla
  1929 4 Ghulam Nabi Captured Mazar Sharif and Marched towards Kabul with an army of 6000 supporters.
1929 6 Word came that King Amanulla had fled the country and the rebellion of Ghulam Nabi lost its drive and eventually failed.
  1929 7 General Nadir Khan Marched from qandahar to reclaim kabul from Bachai saqaw
1929 10 Kabul fell and Bachai Saqaw was captured and hanged, Nadir Shah was proclaimed King of Afghanistan.
  1929 11 King Nadir Shah reversed all of Amanulla's reforms and reinstated all traditional values.
1930 6 Soviet army invaded Afghanistan in a campaign to capture Ibrahim Beg a Uzbek rebel fining against the soviets in Uzbekistan.
  1931 5 Afghan Army forced Ibarim Beg out of Afghanistan and he was captured by Soviets and Killed.

1933   King Nadir Shah was assassinated and was immediately replaced by his son Zahir Khan but the power remained in the hands of King Nadir's brothers.
1947   British forces left South Asia and India proclaimed independence and Indian Muslims proclaimed their own nation Pakistan.
1948   Pashtuns of Pakistan claimed their independence and accepted neither Afghanistan nor Pakistan as their legitimate government. 100 year contract of Pashtunistan similar to Hong Kong had ended with the transfer of land from British to Afghanistan.
1954 10 Prime Minister Daud sent his brother Prince Naim to United States to Appeal to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles for military assistance.
1954 12 US secretary of State Dulles rejected the request for aid stating Afghanistan is of no Interest to United States.
  1955 1 Prime Minister Daud asked USSR for military Assistance
1955 12 First USSR secretary Khrushchev and Prime Minister Bulganin visit Kabul and grant $100 Million line of credit for development of Afghanistan.
1963   Prime Minister Daud resigned from office in disagreement with King Zahir Shah. Troops patrolled the streets of Kabul for several days in case of a coup by Ex-Prime Minister Prince Daud.
1964   King Zahir Shah introduced "New Democracy" Program including a constitution, Parament, Free Elections, Free Press and Freedom to form political parties, All ideas of Prince Daud.
1965 1 Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) a communist party is formed headed by Noor Mohammad Taraki
1965 2 Amin as a Member of Faculty at Kabul University recruited students to the communist party of Afghanistan
  1965 3 First ever elections were held in Afghanistan and 10% of the population participated.
1966 4 Khalq newspaper began printing communist propaganda headed by Taraki and was ordered closed by King Zahir Shah
1967 3 PDPA splits in 2 factions: Khalq headed by Taraki and Parcham by Babrak Karmal a pro soviet communist leader with strong ties to USSR embassy in Kabul.
1969 4 Elections were held in Afghanistan and the PDPA members made inflammatory statements instead of pushing their agenda which resulted in scraping the idea of Constitutional Monarchy.
  1970 1 King Zahir Shah began his grip on power and reclaimed most of the key government position to those loyal to him.
1972   Prince Daud began to make plans with political parties, Military leaders, and Both Parchamis and Khalqis to oust King Zahir Shah.
  1973 6 King Zahir Shah leaves for Italy for medical reasons
1973 7 While Zahir Shah is taking a mud bath at Ischia, Italy he hears the news that Prince Daud has organized a successful coup against the monarchy.
1973 7 Prince Daud makes a radio announcement proclaiming Afghanistan a republic and himself as the first President of the Republic of Afghanistan.
1974   President Daud began to reduce leftist cabinet members and members of the government were dismissed or sent abroad as ambassadors.
  1975   Pakistan accused President Daud of training 15000 Pashtuns to carry out rebellion on Pakistan against the government.
1977 4 President Daud visited Brezhnev in Moscow where Brezhnev presented Daud a list of complains about his policies. President daud's Response: "I want to remind you that you are speaking to the President of an Independent country, No one of your eastern European satellites. You trying to interfere in the internal affairs of Afghanistan, and this I will not permit" and he storms out of Brezhnev's office.
  1977 5 With the Aid of the USSR Parcham and Khaq was reunited as PDPA and began plans and nightly trainings in the deserts and forests to oust President Daud.
1978 3 President Daud made visits to  India, Pakistan, Egypt, Libya, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait to build ties.
  1978 3 President Daud made trade agreements with China and planned to Visit President Carter in Washington.
1978 4 Shah Reza of Iran visited Kabul to build closer trade relations between the 2 nations.
  1978 4 Mir Akbar Khyber a communist ideology was murdered and 15000 supporters of the PDPA marched in military order on the day of his funeral.
1978 4 President Daud saw the PDPA a real threat and arrested Amin, Taraki and Karmal but visitors were free to see them.
1978 4 Amin handed out orders of a coup to his teenage son while amin was in detention. Military Leaders General Watanjar and Colonel Qader began to organized a major coup to overturn the military in PDPA favors.
1978 4 April 27 Coup began by tanks protecting the Presidential Palace turned against President Daud and Air Force Began Bombing the Palace by the order of Colonel Qader
  1978 4 April 27 7:05PM Colonel Qader declared the "End of the Mohammadzai rule in Afghanistan and transfer of power to the people of Afghanistan" Not mentioning the transitional Leaders.
1978 4 April 28 President Daud and all members of his family including grandchildren and  close family aids were killed
1978 4 April 30 Announcement was made on Radio that "revolutionary Council have gained power in Afghanistan headed by Noor Mohammad Taraki.
1978 5 People of Afghanistan rebel against the PDPA Government claiming them as atheist in an Islamic Land of almost 100% devout Muslims.
  1978 10 PDPA declares Marriage Dowry and arranged marriages and declared land reforms without aid to farmers.
1979 2 US Ambassador Adolph Dubs was killed by Russian Advisers in Kabul.
  1979 2 Shah of Iran falls and Replaced by anti-American Ayatolla Khomeini and the hostage situation captures the American attention away from Afghanistan and the Russian buildup.
1979 3 Afghan soldiers Joined Rebels in Herat against the government which resulted in thousands of casualties.
  1979 8 Balah i sar rebellion against the government failed resulted in 4500 Soviet advisors to enter Afghanistan to maintain order.
1979 8 USSR began a plan to assassinate Amin who had most control even though Taraki was the Head of State.
1979 9 Taraki visits Brezhnev and in Moscow they plan to Assassinate Amin and upon his return to Afghanistan. Amin is informed of this plot by Taroon and Shah Wali
1979 9 Amin fires Watanjar, Mazdooryar, Gulabzoi and Sarwari from government posts to strengthens his position against a possible coup.
1979 9 Taraki Invited Amin to Presidential Palace with assurance of Soviet Ambassador Puzanov.Upon Amin's arrival a shoot out breaks and Taroon saves Amin's life by standing in front of him during the shootings. Amin Escapes.
1979 9 Amin Returns at night with his supporters and kills Taraki with a pillow while he is asleep and burring him the night of September 8 1979.
1979 9 September 9 Radio announced the Death of Taraki due to Illness and Amin as the new Leader of Afghanistan. Gulabzoy, Watanjar, Mazdooryar and Sarwary sought refuge in Soviet Embassy building.
1979 10 Time magazine: 30000 Imprisoned and 2000 executed by Khalq regime.
  1979 10 Amin declares Afghanistan an Independent state and would defend its sovereignty even against the USSR. Amin begins to build on Afghan American relationship.
1979 10 USSR begins military buildup in central Asia and Aim fears this as an attack on him and calls for a meeting with Pakistan President Ziaulhaq for a possible amnesty deal but it would never happen.
  1979 11 USSR sends Pavloskii the mastermind of previous Russian invasions of eastern Europe to Afghanistan to plan a future invasion.
1979 12 December 24 Russian soldiers begin to move into Afghanistan and secure airports and  an attack on Darulaman the presidential Palace.
1979 12 Amin is killed at the palace where he was found in the bar with a beautiful woman.
1979 12 Babrak Karmal in a Radio announcement declares himself the new leader of PDPA and asked the soviet army to help him subdue the uprising against the government.
  1980 12 Karmal Begins to Sovietize Afghanistan while the Red Army is in fierce battle with the Mujahideen
1981 5 The Afghan Army which numbered 100000 strong dropped to 30000 due to defection to mujahideen
  1981 12  
1982 5 United States tried to create a coalition of resistance fighters under King Zahir Shah in order to supply them with weapons but the resistance leaders with the help of Pakistan rejected the idea and 6 of 7 leaders established their own leader.
1982 6 7 different resistance groups begin resistance from Pakistan including Rabbani, Hekmatyar, Mojadedi and others smaller groups
1983   CIA begins an active role funding the leaders of resistance groups through Pakistan. (Pakistani government keeps the funding and gives a small amount to its chosen resistance group)
1984   3 foreign groups begin to aid the Afghan people with the help of CIA.   ( Religious Students, Charity Workers, and Wealthy Arabs  including Bin Laden) a gift of CIA to the Afghan people.
1985   Ronald Regan calls Afghans "Heroes of Freedom" "Champions of Free world" and proclaims march 21st as National Afghanistan Day in the United States.
1986   Stinger Missiles are introduced. Karmal is replaced with the notorious Najibullah ( Head of Secret Police) by USSR
1987   Afghans gain the upper hand in the battle against the USSR
1988   USSR begins to pull out of Afghanistan as Najibullah remains in power as the president of Afghanistan.
1989   Slowly major cities fall to Mujahidin and the Communist regime weakens
1990   Dostom, a communist general of Najibullah sees the fall of the communist government, switches sides and established the city of Mazar I Sharif as his stronghold.
1991   Communist government falls as the Mujahidden begin to Advance from different sides of Kabul city.
1992   An Interim Government is established in Pakistan headed by Mojadedi to replace Najibullah. Najibullah seeks refuge in UN building.
1993   Elections were held to proclaim Rabbani as president. Afghans await US assistance in rebuilding Afghanistan. Civil war erupts in Kabul as Dostom, Masoud and Hekmatyar begin to fight for power.
  1994   Warlords and renegade generals establish their own rules in the areas they control
1995   Mullah Omar and few others begin to disarm the warlords and march towards Kabul. Hekmatyar falls to the Taliban. (Rabbani Calls the Taliban "Doves of Peace") Rabbani government is attacked and it falls as Taliban capture Kabul, hang Najibullah.
1996   Osama helps taliban financially as this point and establishes his own group of Arabs remained in this country. Pakistan aids the taliban and uses Bin Laden to further its causes in Kashmir region.

1997   With the Help of Pakistan and Bin Laden and the Taliban displaces Dostom from Mazar I Sharif and gains control of 95% of Afghanistan.
  1998   Dostom, Masood, Hekmatyar and Rabbani establishes the Northern Alliance with the help of Russia.
  1999   Bin laden sends his men to Kashmir, Chechnya and several other countries to fight and establishes his base in lawless Afghanistan.
  2000   Pakistan begins to train Taliban soldiers and provides Bin Laden with intelligence to fight in Kashmir and other nations.
2001 9 Ahmad Shah Masood the leader of the Northern Alliance is Killed on September 9 by men posing as journalists planting a bomb in a video camera.
2001 9 September 11 World Trade center and Pentagon are attacked by hijacked planes.
2001 10 US attacks Afghanistan in retaliation and targets military bases and Taliban and Al Qaeda Soldiers
  2001 11 US ground forces begin their attack on Afghanistan but fails thereafter air strikes begin with 1000s dead
2001 11 The Afghan capital, Kabul, falls without violence Nov 13
  2001 12 Taliban stronghold in southern city of Kandahar falls on Dec 7
2001 12 After the UN sponsored meeting of afghan power brokers, Hamid Karzai, is sworn in as chairman of a six-month interim government Dec 22
2002 4 Former king Mohammad Zaher Shah returns to Afghanistan after 27 years in exile April 18
2002 6 The loya jirga, or tribal grand council, convenes to decide on a new 18-month government charged with drafting a new constitution. June 11
2002 6 Karzai is elected as head of state of the new government of Afghanistan by the loya jirga. June 13
2003 New currency issued by De Afghanistan Bank
2003 11 Draft constitution was presented for further analysis
2003 12 Loya Jirga to ratify the constitution started Sunday December 14. Sebghatullah Mojadedi was elected as Jirga President
  2004 1 Jan. 4, 2004: Council adopts charter creating Islamic state under presidential system sought by Karzai, opening way for elections but also exposing enduring ethnic divisions.
2004 8 Aug. 20, 2004: After nearly yearlong process during which 12 election workers slain, about 10.6 million Afghans are registered to vote.
2004 9 Sept. 7, 2004: Thirty days of campaigning starts for presidential election.
2004 10 Oct. 9, 2004: Presidential election.
  2004 10 Vote count begins and Hamid Karzai is leading in every poll
  2004 15 Hamid Karzai wins presidential election in a landslide 55% to 16% over Yonis Qanooni, his closest rival


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